Tokyo is home to two major international aiports: Narita Aiport and Haneda Airport. The first thing to do before making plans is to ensure you know which airport at which you will be arriving.
From Narita Airport
Taking a shuttle bus will be the most economic option, with the Tokyo Shuttle and The Access Narita each only costing ¥1,000 to get to Tokyo or Ginza Station. Japan Bus Online can help you find other services if you’re looking to travel to somewhere a little further away.
There are three options on the Keisei Line: The Limited Express (Regular), the Sky Access Express, and the Skyliner. They range in price from ¥1,000-¥2,500. The Limited Express is a regular commuter train without luggage racks or seat reservations, and is the cheapest option. The Sky Access Express is a little speedier and a little more expensive. The Skyliner has luggage racks and fancier seats, but is the most expensive. When choosing between the three, pay attention to where each train stops to find the most convenient route for you.
Being the farther airport, a taxi from Narita usually costs over ¥20,000. Shared minibuses are another option, but are also expensive at over ¥6,000 a ride.
Narita Express / N’EX
An option a little less economical than the bus, but more convenient and hassle-free, is the Narita Express train, costing ¥3,200 one way. Departing from Terminal 1 every 30–40 minutes or so, and stopping at Terminals 2/3 on the way out, the N’EX stops at Tokyo Station and then varies in route after that. Each train has luggage racks and reserved seats.
For More Information
For more thorough information about the cheapest options to get to Tokyo from Narita Airport, we highly recommend this article from Tokyo Cheapo.
From Haneda Airport
A limousine bus will be a good option for those with a lot of luggage, only costing up to ¥1,200 to go to major hotels and train stations inside Tokyo proper.
Taxis are again the least economic option here, often costing up to ¥10,000.
This standard commuter train travels in two directions, so be careful making sure you get onto the right one. This train will stop at multiple stations, but again does not have luggage racks or reserved seating. Tickets cost less than ¥500, or around ¥600 if you continue through to Asakusa.
The monorail conveniently connects to the JR Yamanote Line. Tickets cost about ¥500.
For More Information
For more thorough information about the cheapest options to get to Tokyo from Haneda Airport, we highly recommend this other article from Tokyo Cheapo.
Japan being a small country, commuter trains and even bullet trains weren’t designed having passengers with large luggage in mind. If you plan on taking a train to your accommodation, doing some sightseeing beforehand, or just don’t want to bother with cumbersome luggage, consider having your luggage shipped to your accommodations. There are multiple delivery service providers which offer same- or next-day delivery, with costs ranging from ¥1,000-¥3,000.